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نظام الزيادات النسبية على بدل الإجارة لسنة 2013 نظام رقم (78) لسنة 2013..المحامي جمال الخطاطبه

نظام صادر بموجب الفقرة (أ) من المادة (5) من قانون المالكين والمستاجرين المعدل بموجب القانون رقم (14) لسنة 2013 .

المادة1- يسمى هذا النظام (نظام الزيادات النسبية على بدل الإجارة لسنة 2013) ويعمل به من تاريخ نشره في الجريدة الرسمية.

المادة2- أ- لغايات هذه المادة تعني عبارة (بدل الإجارة الأخير) :- بدل إجارة العقارات المؤجرة لغايات السكن أو لغايات أخرى قبل 31/8/2000 مضافا إليه الزيادات القانونية التي طرأت على هذا البدل بموجب التشريعات السابقة على نفاذ أحكام القانون المعدل لقانون المالكين والمستأجرين رقم (22) لسنة 2011 أو الزيادات التي طرأت على بدل الإجارة بالاتفاق بين المالك والمستأجر في أي وقت قبل نفاذ أحكام القانون المعدل لقانون المالكين والمستأجرين رقم (14) لسنة 2013 .

ب- تضاف إلى بدل إجارة العقار المؤجر لغايات السكن قبل 31/8/2000 ما نسبته (25%) من بدل الإجارة الأخير.

ج- تضاف إلى بدل إجارة العقار المؤجر لغير غايات السكن قبل 31/8/2000ما نسبته (35%) من بدل الإجارة الأخير.

المادة 3- إذا عُدل بدل الإجارة بعد تاريخ آخر زيادة قانونية بالاتفاق بين المالك والمستأجر بحيث أصبح أقل من البدل المحدد بمقتضى أحكام الفقرتين (ب) و(ج) من المادة (2) من هذا النظام فيتم تعديل بدل الإجارة ليصبح مساويا للبدل المحدد بمقتضى أحكام تلك الفقرتين . أما إذا أصبح بدل الإجارة المعدل بالاتفاق أكثر من البدل المحدد بمقتضى أحكام أي من الفقرتين المذكورتين، فيبقى البدل المعدل ملزما إلى أن تتم إعادة النظر فيه وفقا لأحكام المادة (5) من هذا النظام .

المادة4- يعمل بنسب الزيادة على بدل الإجارة المنصوص عليها في المادة (2) من هذا النظام اعتبارا من تاريخ استحقاق بدل الإجارة التالي لتاريخ نفاذ أحكام هذا النظام .

المادة5- تتم إعادة النظر ببدل الإجارة المنصوص عليه في المادة (2) من هذا النظام من مجلس الوزراء مرة كل خمس سنوات .

شارع يفرز رضائيا … المحامي جمال الخطاطبه

شارع يفرز رضائيا

اصبحت التعليمات التي تصدرها بعض الجهات في محاولة للتحايل على القانون وعلى اصحاب الاراضي امر لا يجب السكوت عليه في ظل دولة القانون والمؤسسات , فهذه التعليمات مخالفة صريحة لمبدأ المشروعية الذي يتطلب انسجام القانون الادنى مع القانون الاعلى , فالقانون يجب ان لا يخاف الدستور , والنظام يجب ان لا يخالف القانون والدستور , والتعليمات ايضا يجب ان لا تخالف النظام والقانون والدستور .

ان ما يظهر للعيان ان بعض الجهات ذات الاختصاص التنظيمي ومن ضمنها امانة عمان الكبرى تستخدم في شؤونها التنظيمية بعض المصطلحات المستحدثة من بنات افكار القائمين عليها في محاولة للتذاكي والتحايل على القانون وعلى اصحاب الاملاك , وتجنب دفع التعويضات لمستحقيها , وذلك من خلال استحداث شوارع تنظيمية ضمن املاك المواطنين تحت مسميات مختلفة بغية ان لا تدخل مساحات تلك الشوارع في حساب الربع القانوني , وبذات الوقت تلزم المواطن بالانصياع لتلك المسميات المخالفة للقانون عبر فرضها عنوة على المواطن عند محاولة لاجراء اي معاملة للتقسيم او الافراز بحيث تقوم تلك الدوائر التنظيمية باسقاط تلك المساحات من حسابات الربع القانوني وعلى سبيل المثال من تلك المسميات المستخدمة شارع يفرز رضائيا او شارع استدلاليا .

في الحقيقة ان قانون الاستملاك الاردني لسنة 1987 وتعديلاته في المادة 11 فقرة أ  اعطت الحق للوزارات والمؤسسات الرسمية والبلديات الحق باستملاك ربع مساحة الارض مجانا ودون اي تعويض اذا كان هذا الاستملاك لغاية فتح او توسيع طريق , وقد عرفت المادة 2 من قانون الاستملاك الطريق بانه : أي طريق أو شارع أو زقاق أو ممر أو جسر أو درج بما في ذلك الخنادق والمجاري والعبارات والارصفة والدوارات التابعة للطرق وجزر السلامة فيها والجدران الاستنادية لها وتشمل هذه الكلمة حرم الطريق والساحات الملحقة بالطرق , وقد اوضحت الفقرة ج من المادة 11 من ذات القانون انه في حال استملك ربع مساحة الارض مجانا للطرق فلا يجوز استملاك أي جزء آخر منها بدون تعويض.

من خلال استقراء هذه النصوص نجد ان قانون الاستملاك في الواقع قد منح امتيازا  للجهة المستملكة على حق المالك للارض , بان منحها الحق باقتطاع ربع مساحة اي قطعة ارض مجانا ودون اي مقابل اذا كانت غاية الاستملاك هو فتح او توسيع طرق وشوارع ضمن تلك القطعة , واستند المشرع في ذلك الى مقتضيات المصلحة العامة في فتح وتنظيم الطرق, الا ان القانون لم يسمح باي حال من الاحوال وتحت اي مسمى ان يتم اقتطاع ما يزيد عن مساحة الربع القانوني دون تعويض .

وبالعودة الى الاجتهادات القضائية الاردنية نجد ان القضاء الاردني لا ياخذ بمثل هذه المسميات ولا يلتفت لها وانما يسير على هدي ما جاء بالنصوص القانونية الواردة في قانون الاستملاك وقانون تنظيم المدن والقرى والابنية وقد صدرت عدة قرارات من محكمة التمييز الاردنية بهيئتها العامة والعادية تؤكد على ان افراز طريق بموجب مخطط تنظيمي ليكون طريق عاما حتى لو تم برضاء المالك لا يعد من قبيل التبرع وواجب التعويض اذا زادت المساحة المستملكة عن الربع القانوني .

ان الخطورة في مثل هذه الاجراءات التي تفرضها الدوائر التنظيمية تكمن في استغلالها من قبل تلك الجهات للدخول على اراضي المواطنين وترسيم شوارع تحت مسمى الرضائي او الاستدلالي للتخلص من اي مطالبات بالتعويض  واستغلال جهل المالك او اقناعة بصحة هذه التصرفات وانصياعه لهذه التسميات العشوائية والتي تؤدي الى عدم المطالبة باي تعويض حتى لو زادت المساحة المقتطعة عن الربع القانوني مما يؤدي الى ضياع حقوقه القانونية .

هذه الشوارع التي تستحدث تحت هذه المسميات هي في الواقع استملاك بالمعنى القانوني المنصوص عليه في قانون الاستملاك وقانون تنظيم المدن والقرى والابنية و ذلك ان مثل هذه الشوارع يتم ترسيمها بموجب قرارات تنظيمية , وفي حال تم افرازها فانه يحق لمالك القطعة التي تجاوزت الاقتطاعات فيها الربع القانون ان يطالب بالتعويض عما زاد عن الربع القانوني حتى لو افرزت برضاه ، ومن جهة اخرى فهناك فرق بين الطريق الخاص والطريق العام , فالطريق الخاص محدود المنافذ ويستحدث لغاية خدمة قطعة اراض او قطع اراض محددة ويستطيع اصحابه منع الغير من استخدامه بينما الطريق العام يستحدث لاستخدام العامة , وكذلك يختلف مفهوم الطريق الافرازي  عن المفهوم المستحدث للشارع ذو الافراز الرضائي , فالشوارع الافرازية تستحدث من قبل الشركاء الذين يرغبون بافراز قطعة ارض الى عدة قطع فيستحدثون شوارع بموجب معاملة التقسيم لخدمة القطع المفرزة , بينما الشارع الذي يفرز رضائيا يستحدث بموجب قرار تنظيمي معلن ليكون شارع عاما وليس خاصا , الا ان الجهة التنظيمية توقف التصديق النهائي لهذا الشارع حتى يقوم صاحب الارض بافرازه بنفسه لغاية اعتباره شارع افرازيا وهذا في الواقع مخالفة قانونية صريحة وتعد واضح على حق الملكية ويحمل معنى اجبار المالك على التبرع  .

The Legitimate Ways to Access a Trade Secret and its Effects on the owners of the Trade Secrets Prepared By: Jamal.M. Al- Khatatbeh

 

 The Legitimate Ways to Access a Trade Secret and its Effects on the owners of the Trade Secrets

Prepared By: Jamal.M. Al- Khatatbeh

Master’s student in the Faculty of Law, University of Jordan 2013

Lecturer: Dr. Qais .A.  Mahafza

 

 

 

The Legitimate Ways to Access a Trade Secret and its Effects on the owners of the Trade Secrets

“The ability of companies to compete in any market depends on their ability to acquire and maintain a competitive advantage. Companies carefully guard essential and sensitive information that has an impact on a company’s ability to compete”.[1] This confidential information that has commercial value is the so-called trade secrets and, in some countries called undisclosed information.

It is known that there is no single legal system for the protection of confidential information, that’s where the different legal systems of the treatment of confidential information regarding the designation and how protect (TRIPs) developed a system for the protection of confidential information called undisclosed information And considered among the intellectual property rights.

“Trade secret is defined as any valuable commercial information that provides a business with an advantage over competitors who do not have that information”.[2] “In general terms trade secrets include inventions, ideas, or compilations of data that are used by a business to make itself more successful. Specifically, trade secrets include any useful formula, plan, pattern, process, program, tool, technique, mechanism, compound, or device that is not generally known or readily ascertainable by the public. Whatever type of information is represented by a trade secret, a business must take reasonable steps to safeguard it from disclosure”.[3]

“As a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and a party to the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual-Property Rights (TRIPS), the United States is obligated to provide trade secret protection.  Article 39 paragraph 2 requires member nations to provide a means for protecting information that is secret, commercially valuable because it is secret, and subject to reasonable steps to keep it secret. The U.S. fulfills its obligation by offering trade secret protection under state laws. While state laws differ, there is similarity among the laws because almost all states have adopted some form of the Uniform Trade Secrets Act. The language of the  Uniform Trade Secret Act is very similar to the language in TRIPS”.[4]

In Jordan, “the trade secrets and Unfair Competition Law 15 of 2000. In its enactment, the Jordanian legislature combined trade secrets and unfair competition in a single piece of legislation trade secret protection is not addressed as a separate topic. The reason for this approach is that unfair competition is a broad topic and trade secret law can be viewed as a subset of unfair competition”.[5]

. The Trade secrets and Unfair Competition Law (Trade secrets Law) does not provide a specific definition of Trade secrets. Such a definition may not even be possible. The Trade secrets Law sets certain conditions which, if met, will make confidential information worthy of protection. Any information is deemed a Trade secrets  if

  1. It is not generally known in its final form or its precise components or readily accessible to persons within the circles that normally deal with this kind of  information in question;
  2.  It has commercial value because it is secret
  3.  It has been subject to reasonable steps under the circumstances, by the person lawfully in control of the information, to keep it secret.[6] This text in language similar to what is stated in the text of Article 39, paragraph 2, of the TRIPS Agreement.

On the other hand. The law of Unfair Competition and Trade Secrets of Jordan in Article 6, protects trade secrets from misuse across disclosed or used without the consent of the owner in a manner contrary to honest commercial practices, this article as follows:

 Article (6)

  1. Any person obtaining, using or disclosing trade secrets in violation of the honest commercial practices, without the consent of the person lawfully in control of such trade secrets, is deemed misuse of the trade secret.
  2. For the purpose of applying provision of paragraph (A) of such article, the following shall be deemed violation of the honest commercial practices:
    1. Breach of the Contract
    2. Breach and Inducement to Breach of trusted Secrecy of Information
    3. The acquisition of trade secrets by third party who knows, or is able to know that such parties’ acquisition of such secrets was a result of violating honest commercial practices Individual access to trade secret or through reverse engineering  shall not be deemed violation of the honest commercial practice.[7]

                                                                                                                                                          From the extrapolation of this article, it is clearly that  if any one obtain trade secret or used or disclosed without the consent of the holder of the trade secret manner contrary to honest commercial practices will this considered as a misuse of the trade secret, furthermore, The Jordanian Legislator cited in paragraph (b) that :is the consideration of cases in violation of the law honest business practices, but it is for cases not limited to, In the last paragraph of Article (6), the legislature mentioned some exceptional cases were the  trade secret is allowed, nor contrary to practices of legitimate business, which is to reach a trade secret in an independent manner or through reverse engineering, and I’ll discuss those exceptions hereunder as a  legitimate for trade secret and use it without any violation of legitimate business practices.

 This research will be divided into three Sections as follows:

  • Section I: Legitimate Exceptions to Access to Trade Secrets and the Definition of those Exceptions.
  • Section II: The Extent of the Impact of those Exceptions to the Interests of the Original Owner of the Trade Secret.
  • Section III:  The Conclusion.

Section I: Legitimate Exceptions to Access to Trade Secrets and Definitions    

Due to the Importance of  Trade Secrets and its great impact on the economy of countries and the interests of companies and businessmen, the international conventions and the laws of the various countries  Dealt with the Subject of Confidential Information and protect it from Misuse or theft by Piracy.  Accordingly, the TRIPS agreement  stipulated in Article (39) of them on the Protection of undisclosed Information from the obtained or disclosed or used without the consent of its owner, and granted Protection of Information provided to the Government or any competent Authority, as well as showed conditions to be met in the information even considered a trade secret.[8]

According to the Trade Secrets Laws the Legitimate Exceptions to Access to Trade Secrets are:

  1. Reverse Engineering.
  2. Independent Development.

  1. 1.     Reverse Engineering

“Reverse engineering is the process of starting with a finished product and working backwards to analyze how the product operates or how it was made.”[9]

  “The possessor of the product, by virtue of being the owner of the product, is free to do what she wants with the product. This can include reverse engineering it. Trade secret law, in this regard, is different than copyright or patent law.”[10]

“Trade secrets law only protects a Trade secrets  so long as it remains a secret . Therefore, once a third party is allowed to acquire a copy of a product embodying the Trade secrets , that party is free to  engage in reverse engineering.”[11]

“Two restrictions, however, do exist on the right of a third party to engage in reverse engineering. First, if the product to be reverse engineered was acquired improperly, the mere acquisition of the product may be misappropriation of a trade secret, Therefore, no right to engage in reverse engineering would exist. Second, the extent of the interest conveyed in the product to be reverse engineered must be ascertained. If the trade secret owner merely licensed a third party to use the product for a specific purpose, the third party may have only a very limited property interest in the product. Additionally, the trade secret owner and the third party may have contractually agreed that the third party may not engage in any reverse engineering of the product. In such a case, reverse engineering by the third party may amount to misappropriation of the trade secret.”[12].

  1. 2.      Independent Development

 

“Trade secret law permits, and hence effectively encourages, others to independently develop the same or Andrew Beckerman-Rodau, TRADE SECRETS — THE NEW RISKS TO TRADE SECRETS POSED BY COMPUTERIZATION, Rutgers Computer and Technology Law Journal
2002, 28 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 227 similar competitively valuable matter, by not only allowing such development but by also providing second (and third, etc.) entrants into the market with the ability to protect their own investments against those who would improperly copy what the legitimate developers worked hard to achieve. Trade secret law thus protects not only the original developer, but also a competitor which takes the time and expends the effort to independently develop the same or a similar trade secret, not only allowing the competitor to exploit the fruit of its efforts but to enjoy the same rights as the first developer to prevent others from unauthorized acquisition, use and disclosure of the information.”[13]

In the law of unfair competition and trade secrets of Jordan in Article 6, paragraph c, has cited the text makes access to the trade secret independently or through reverse engineering is not contrary to honest commercial practices.[14]

 

If any person not legally authorized access to the trade secret, the carrying code decoder trade secret information without resorting to illegal means, such as reverse engineering or independent invention, from here, the trade secret owner does not have to take any legal action against the person.

It should be noted that access to trade secrets through accident, or as a result of published and disclosed by the owner or by any other person is the legitimate access, and that access to trade secret result of the failure to take owner trade secret of the measures reasonable to maintain the confidentiality also is legitimately access .

As for the issue of the protection of pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products, the TRIPS Agreement has protected these products from misuse or unfair use when providing confidential information related to this product when examined or tested, except where necessary to protect the public, or unless steps are taken to ensure that the data are protected against unfair commercial use.[15]

In the same context, Jordanian legislator in the law of unfair competition and trade secrets cited in Article 8 special provision for pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemical which requires an official competent authority to provide information reached a result of the efforts of arguing for the purposes of approval on the marketing of prescription drugs or use them, but the law granting protection The owner of this information, by requiring the commitment of the responsibility of the competent authority to protect such data from unfair commercial use or disclosure , and preventing anyone did not get the consent of the provider of the information from reliable to market such drugs and agricultural products, but after 5 years from the date for the data provider approval to market its products, However, the legislature exempted specific cases entitled to competent official authority to disclose such information in the case if the disclosure is necessary for protecting the public , as well as , the official party has taken the necessary steps for the protection from unfair commercial use of such data But after 5 years provided for in this Article, the protection expires and is considered a legitimate access to information .[16]

  • Section II: the Extent of the Impact of those Exceptions to the Interests of the Original Owner of the Trade Secret.

“Trade secrets are important to businesses of all sizes, from the smallest mom-and-pop shops to the largest multinational entities. Trade secrets are often the most valuable intangible assets of a company, and the survival of a company may depend on its ability to protect its trade secrets. In the Internet age, securing information can be especially daunting because once a trade secret has been disclosed, even if inadvertently, it ceases to be a trade secret”.[17]

It is known that the trade secret owner is the person who has the right to disclose the trade secret, right of use and right to keep it, and that the trade secret owner has the right to prevent others from misusing trade secrets or reached its law or manner without the consent of the owner. [18]

Contrary to the above,” the trade secret owner does not have the exclusive right to prevent others from access to trade secrets in a legitimate manner, unlike the patent system which gives the patent holder an exclusive right even reached non-legally”[19]

“The Trade secrets system provides the inventor of the system as a substitute for the patent system, which acts as a Complementary to the patent so that it extends protection according to the system of trade secrets to the technical knowledge that cannot be protected by a patent either for lack of novelty or step or creative ability for industrial application”[20]

The question that arises here, what if there was a person who owned  a trade secret information, and uses this information at his work, and this trade secret play a crucial role in the success and obtaining profits and a great reputation among the public, Then someone else has discovered the same trade secret information in a legitimate manner, either independently or through reverse engineering, After discovering this information the disclosure to the public, What are the results that will occur as a result of disclosure of such information by the person who found this information by legitimate means.

In fact, this case is complex, and caused   serious consequences for the owner of the trade secret.

With respect to trade secret, “Once the information is generally known, it has virtually no value as an innovation, so consumers pay the lower prices associated with a thoroughly competitive market”.[21]

“The proprietor of the trade secret may also lose his secret if it can be “reverse engineered” from his marketed product”.[22]

The risk lies in the case was a trade secret is a major factor in your business venture owner of the trade secret, in this case, the trade secret revealed by someone else in an independent manner or through reverse engineering and revealed to the public may cause the collapse of the business enterprise of the owner of the trade secret, In spite of this disclosure, the trade secret owner can not sue The person who revealed his trade secret, Trade secret owner will suffer from the tragic loss, Effort, time and money, which exerted for the sake of discovery trade secret information and maintaining it would be vulnerable to loss.

 That’s where trade secrets play an important role in the economy of countries, leaving the door open to reveal trade secrets legitimate ways that could lead to the collapse of the economy of many countries, Also give the same rights enjoyed by the owner of the trade secret, the person who discovered the same information independently or through reverse engineering, leads to commercial competition between the parties which may harm the interests of the former owner of the trade secret discovery.

“Once a trade secret is no longer secret, it loses all protection. Thus, if a person reverse engineers a trade secret from the publicly available product or service, or independently invents the same trade secret, the trade secret owner has no right to exclude that individual from making use of the trade secret”.[23]

In special cases, some competitors may using legitimate ways to get to the trade secret for the purpose of harming the interests of the owner, or the elimination of his foundation business, and this is the result, gives the formula for doing legal assault on the interests of others and destroyed

  • Section III: Conclusion

the confidential information which is carry commercial value, are in fact, the information is protected under international conventions and laws of the States, because it plays a major role in the economy, companies and countries, especially the industrialized countries , therefore, Trade secrets laws protected this information, and showed the conditions to be met in such information in order to be considered trade secrets worthy of protection, But these legal provisions have created exceptions to the misuse of trade secrets, These exceptions are  the access to the trade secret independently or through so-called reverse engineering, Laws have been awarded to reach a trade secret through these means legitimacy recipe,  And considered not incompatible with illegal business practices.

In practice, the opportunity for others to access trade secret in a legitimate manner, resulting in serious effects on the interests of the owner of the trade secret, and the interests of countries that rely on big business, which may cause the collapse of its economy ,which Making trade secrets in constant danger.

In this dilemma , Had to be on the legislator to find appropriate solutions to such a situation To maintain the importance of the trade secret, like , Give priority to the owner of the trade secret to prevent the person who discovered the trade secret in a legitimate manner independently or through reverse engineering of used or disclosed during a certain period, for example during the five years,  Or allow the owner of the trade secret to sue the person who discovered his secret trade, if the disposal of this person in a manner detrimental to the interests of the owner of the trade secret, for example, if that person disclose trade secrets to the public, which led to losing the owner of the trade secret the large financial returns, which was obtained through the use of his trade secret.

From my point of view, it is necessary to give more trade secrets protection, similar to other sections of intellectual property such as patents

And not leave it vulnerable to loss, or dispose of them in a manner detrimental to the interests of the owners, it must be of the introduction of the principle, in the former discovery in an attempt to get out of this impasse.

With regard to the text of Article 6, paragraph (c) of the law of unfair competition and trade secrets of Jordan, I proposed an amendment to it, so that it is added to the following statement (provided that the person who discovered the trade secret is committed not to be used it or disclosed during the period of five years from the date of discovery).

So that the text is as follows :C. (Individual access to trade secret or through reverse engineering shall not be deemed violation of the honest commercial practices provided that the person who discovered the trade secret is committed not to be used it or disclosed during the period of five years from the date of discovery).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • References
  1. - Bashar H. Malkawi   A critical look at trade secrets protection in Jordan, I.P.Q. 2012, 2, 123-133 (Approx. 10 pages).
  2. - <a href=”http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/trade+secret”>trade secret</a> ) (last visited may 9.2013 ).
  3. -http://www.uspto.gov/ip/global/patents/ir_pat_tradesecret.jsp The United States patent and trademark office an agency of the department of commerce  (last visited may 9.2013 ).
  4.   United States District Court,E.D. Virginia, Alexandria Division. SECURE SERVICES TECHNOLOGY, INCORPORATED, Plaintiff, v.TIME AND SPACE PROCESSING, INCORPORATED, Defendant.Civ. A. No. 89-0192-A.Sept. 29, 1989
  5.  Andrew Beckerman-Rodau, TRADE SECRETS — THE NEW RISKS TO TRADE SECRETS POSED BY COMPUTERIZATION, Rutgers Computer and Technology Law Journal
    2002, 28 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 227.
  6.  Roger M. Milgrim, COMMISSION PROPOSED CAPITAL PUNISHMENT — BY DEFINITION — FOR TRADE SECRETS, A UNIQUELY Journal of the Patent and Trademark Office Society November, 2006 (Approx. 44 pages.
  7.   Elizabeth A. Rowe, ROPOSING A MECHANISM FOR REMOVING TRADE SECRETS FROM THE INTERNET, Journal of Internet Law September, 2008.
  8.  Emad Ibrahim,( Thesis) , Civil protection for patents and trade secrets (Comparative Study), An-Najah National University in Nablus, Palestine 2012, Arabic reference.
  9.  Lotfi, Mohamed Hossam Mahmoud: Effects of the Convention on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) on legislation Arab countries, Third Edition, Cairo. 2002, Arabic reference.
  10. Jonathan R. Chally, THE LAW OF TRADE SECRETS: TOWARD A MORE EFFICIENT APPROACH, Vanderbilt Law ReviewMay, 2004
  11. Fish & Richardson p.c., Protecting your trade secrets , http://www.tradesecretsblog.info/TradeSecretNotebook.pdf
  12. Brian M. Hoffstadt, DISPOSSESSION, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, AND THE SIN OF THEORETICAL HOMOGENEITY, University of Southern California, July, 2007 (Approx. 67 pages).
  13. Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs)15 April 1994
  14.  the law of unfair competition and trade secrets Jordan’s No. 15 for the year 2000 .


  1. 1.       Bashar H. Malkawi   A critical look at trade secrets protection in Jordan, I.P.Q. 2012, 2, 123-133 (Approx. 10 pages)
  2. 2.       .”http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/trade+secret”>trade secret</a> ) last visited (may 9.2013 ).

                           

  1. <a href=”http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/trade+secret”>trade secret</a> ) (last visited may 9.2013
  2. http://www.uspto.gov/ip/global/patents/ir_pat_tradesecret.jsp The United States patent and trademark office an agency of the department of commerce  (last visited may 9.2013 ).
  3. 5.       Bashar H. Malkawi   A critical look at trade secrets protection in Jordan, I.P.Q. 2012, 2, 123-133 (Approx. 10 pages).

 

  1. Ibid
  2. Article (6) from the law of Unfair Competition and Trade Secrets of Jordan   15 of 2000.

  1. Article 39 of the TRIPS Agreement provides as follows: 1. In the course of ensuring effective protection against unfair competition as provided in Article 10bis of the Paris Convention (1967), Members shall protect undisclosed information in accordance with paragraph 2 and data submitted to governments or governmental agencies in accordance with paragraph 3.

2. Natural and legal persons shall have the possibility of preventing information lawfully within their control from being disclosed to, acquired by, or used by others without their consent in a manner contrary to honest commercial practices (10) so long as such information:

    (a) is secret in the sense that it is not, as a body or in the precise configuration and assembly of its components, generally known among or readily accessible to persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information in question;

    (b) has commercial value because it is secret; and

    (c) has been subject to reasonable steps under the circumstances, by the person lawfully in control of the information, to keep it secret.

3. Members, when requiring, as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or of agricultural chemical products which utilize new chemical entities, the submission of undisclosed test or other data, the origination of which involves a considerable effort, shall protect such data against unfair commercial use. In addition, Members shall protect such data against disclosure, except where necessary to protect the public, or unless steps are taken to ensure that the data are protected against unfair commercial use.

:

  1. United States District Court,E.D. Virginia, Alexandria Division. SECURE SERVICES TECHNOLOGY, INCORPORATED, Plaintiff, v.TIME AND SPACE PROCESSING, INCORPORATED, Defendant.Civ. A. No. 89-0192-A.Sept. 29, 1989.
  2. Andrew Beckerman-Rodau, TRADE SECRETS — THE NEW RISKS TO TRADE SECRETS POSED BY COMPUTERIZATION, Rutgers Computer and Technology Law Journal
    2002, 28 Rutgers Computer & Tech. L.J. 227
  3. Ibid
  4. Ibid

.

  1. Roger M. Milgrim, COMMISSION PROPOSED CAPITAL PUNISHMENT — BY DEFINITION — FOR TRADE SECRETS, A UNIQUELY Journal of the Patent and Trademark Office Society

November, 2006 (Approx. 44 pages)

  1. See Article 6, paragraph (c) of the law of unfair competition and trade secrets Jordan’s No. 15 for the year 2000
  2. see article 39 paragraph 3 from Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

(TRIPs) 15 April 1994.

  1. See Article 8, paragraph (A,B) of the law of unfair competition and trade secrets Jordan’s No. 15

              for the year 2000

  1. Elizabeth A. Rowe, ROPOSING A MECHANISM FOR REMOVING TRADE SECRETS FROM THE INTERNET, Journal of Internet Law September, 2008.
    1. 18.    see article 39 paragraph 2 from Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

( TRIPs) 15 April 1994. And — See Article 5, paragraph (A,B) of the law of unfair competition and trade secrets Jordan’s No. 15 for the year 2000

  1. Emad Ibrahim,( Thesis) , Civil protection for patents and trade secrets (Comparative Study), An-Najah National University in Nablus, Palestine 2012, Arabic reference. )
  2. Lotfi, Mohamed Hossam Mahmoud: Effects of the Convention on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) on legislation Arab countries, Third Edition, Cairo. 2002, Arabic reference. ,
    1. Jonathan R. Chally, THE LAW OF TRADE SECRETS: TOWARD A MORE EFFICIENT APPROACH, Vanderbilt Law ReviewMay, 2004
    2. Fish & Richardson p.c., Protecting your trade secrets , http://www.tradesecretsblog.info/TradeSecretNotebook.pdf
    3. Brian M. Hoffstadt, DISPOSSESSION, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, AND THE SIN OF THEORETICAL HOMOGENEITY, University of Southern California, July, 2007 (Approx. 67 pages).

EMPLOYEE NON-SOLICITATION, NON-COMPETE AND CONFIDENTIALITY AGREEMENT

This EMPLOYEE NON-SOLICITATION, NON-COMPETE AND CONFIDENTIALITY AGREEMENT is made and entered into this ——— day of ————————-, 2012 (this”Agreement“) by and between whose  address is, (the “Company”), and(the “           “) (collectively, the “Parties”).

WHEREAS, the Company is offering employment to the Employee and wishes to protect its confidential information, intellectual property and other legitimate business interests.

NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of the mutual promises and covenants contained herein, and for other good and valuable consideration, the receipt and sufficiency of which are hereby acknowledged, the Parties, intending legally to be bound, agree as follows:

  1. 1.   Restrictive Covenants.

           (a) Confidentiality. The Employee agrees that both during the Employee’s employment with the Company and thereafter the Employee will not disclose to any third party or use in any way (except in performing the Employee’s duties while employed by the Company in furtherance of the best interests of the Company and its affiliates) any confidential information, business secrets, or business opportunity of the Company or its affiliates or any of their advertisers, customers, subscribers or distributors (“Customers”), including without limitation, drawings, designs, plans, marketing, advertising and promotional ideas and strategies, marketing surveys and analyses, technology, budgets, business plans, customer or supplier lists, research or financial, purchasing, planning, employment or personnel data or information (“Confidential Information”). Immediately upon termination of the Employee’s employment, or at any other time upon the Company’s request, the Employee will return to the Company (i) all memoranda, notes and data, and computer software and hardware, records or other documents compiled by the Employee or made available to the Employee during the Employee’s employment with the Company concerning the business of the Company, its affiliates or their Customers, (ii) all other Confidential Information, and (iii) all personal property of the Company or its affiliates, including without limitation, all drawings, designs, plans, files, records, documents, lists, equipment, supplies, promotional materials, keys, phone or credit cards and similar items and all copies thereof or extracts therefrom.

        (b) No Solicitation of Employees. The Employee agrees that, both during the Employee’s employment with the Company and for a period of two (2) years following the termination of the Employee’s employment with the Company at any time and for any reason, the Employee will not, directly or indirectly, on the Employee’s own behalf or on behalf of any other person or entity, hire or solicit to hire for employment or consulting or other provision of services, any person who is actively employed or engaged (or in the preceding six months was actively employed or engaged) by the Company. This includes, but is not limited to, inducing or attempting to induce, or influencing or attempting to influence, any person employed or engaged by the Company to terminate his or her relationship with the Company.

     (c) No Solicitation of Customers. The Employee agrees that, both during the Employee’s employment and for a period of two (2) years following the termination of the Employee’s employment with the Company at any time and for any reason, the Employee will not directly or indirectly, on the Employee’s own behalf or on behalf of any other person or entity, solicit the business of any Customer or any other entity with which the Company has an agreement, at the time of Employee’s termination, to provide services to such entity (a “Contractor“).

       (d) Non-Competition. During the Employee’s employment with the Company and for a period of two (2) years following the termination of the Employee’s employment with the Company at any time and for any reason, the Employee shall not, on the Employee’s own behalf or on behalf of others, directly or indirectly, (whether as an Employee, consultant, investor, partner, sole proprietor or otherwise) be employed by, perform any services for, or hold any ownership interest in any business engaged in the business of operating a newspaper or other media business that relies on the sale of advertising (including, without limitation, any business involved in the printing or publication of any newspaper, flyer, shopper, circular or other publication carrying advertising, or any other business, including radio or television broadcasting or cable television, involving the solicitation of advertising for a media business), or any on-line or other business, service or operation ancillary or related thereto, that is published or originates in, or any publications (including zoned editions of newspapers) or other products and services of which are substantially directed or marketed to residents of, any city, town or county in which the Company or its affiliate is doing business, or in which the Company or its affiliate has established plans to do business as of the date of the termination of the Employee’s employment with the Company. The above notwithstanding, the ownership, for investment purposes, of up to one percent (1%) of the total outstanding equity securities of a publicly traded company, shall not be considered a violation of this subparagraph (d).

      (e) Enforcement. The Employee acknowledges and agrees that the restrictions contained in this Paragraph           1 are necessary to protect other legitimate business interests of the Company. The Employee acknowledges that all of the restrictions in this Paragraph 1 are reasonable in all respects, including duration,  territory and scope of activity. The Employee agrees that the restrictions contained in this Paragraph 1 shall be construed as separate agreements independent of any other provision of this Agreement or any other agreement between the Employee and the Company. The Employee agrees that the existence of any claim or cause of action by the Employee against the Company shall not constitute a defense to the enforcement by the Company of the covenants and restrictions in this Paragraph 1. The Employee agrees that the injury the Company will suffer in the event of the breach by the Employee of any clause of this Paragraph 1 will cause the Company irreparable injury that cannot be adequately compensated by monetary damages alone. Therefore, the Employee agrees that the Company, without limiting any other legal or equitable remedies available to it, shall be entitled to obtain equitable relief by injunction or otherwise, without the posting of any bond, from any court of competent jurisdiction, including, without limitation, injunctive relief to prevent the Employee’s failure to comply with the terms and conditions of this Paragraph 1. The periods of time referenced in each of subparagraphs (b), (c) and (d) above shall be tolled on a day-for-day basis for each day during which the Employee violates the provisions of subparagraphs (b), (c) or (d) in any respect, so that the Employee is restricted from engaging in the activities prohibited by subparagraphs (b), (c) and (d) for the full stated time period.

2.     Intangible Property. The Employee will not at any time during or after the Employee’s employment with the Company have or claim any right, title or interest in any trade name, trademark, patent, copyright, work for hire or other similar rights belonging to or used by the Company and shall not have or claim any right, title or interest in any material or matter of any sort prepared for or used in connection with the business or promotion of the Company, whatever the Employee’s involvement with such matters may have been, and whether procured, produced, prepared, or published in whole or in part by the Employee, it being the intention of the Parties that the Employee shall and hereby does, recognize that the Company now has and shall hereafter have and retain the sole and exclusive rights in any and all such trade names, trademarks, patents, copyrights (all the Employee’s work in this regard being a work for hire for the Company under the copyright laws of the United States), material and matter as described above. If any work created by the Employee is not a work for hire under the copyright laws of the United States, then the Employee hereby assigns to the Company all rights, title and interests in each such work (including, but not limited to, copyright rights). The Employee shall cooperate fully with the Company during the Employee’s employment and thereafter in the securing of trade name, trademark, patent or copyright protection or other similar rights in the United States and in foreign countries and shall give evidence and testimony and execute and deliver to the Company all papers requested by it in connection therewith. The Employee hereby irrevocably appoints the Company as the Employee’s attorney-in-fact (with a power coupled with an interest) to execute any and all documents which may be necessary or appropriate in the security of such rights, including but not limited to, any copyright in the Employee’s work.

3.     Employment at Will. The Employee acknowledges and agrees that the Employee’s employment with the Company is “at will” employment. The Employee is free to resign and terminate the Employee’s employment with the Company at any time and for any reason. The Company is free to terminate the Employee’s employment with the Company at any time for any reason. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, this Agreement is not intended to create, and shall not be construed to create, a contract of employment or other modification to the Employee’s “at will” status.

4.             Assignment. Neither Party may assign this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other, except that the Company may assign the Agreement, including the non-competition covenant in Paragraph 1 (d), to any entity acquiring all or substantially all of the assets or the business of the Company in which the Employee is primarily employed.

5.    Waiver or Modification. Any waiver by the Company of a breach of any provision of this Agreement shall not operate as, or be construed to be, a waiver of any other breach of such provision of this Agreement. The failure of the Company to insist on strict adherence to any term of this Agreement on one or more occasions shall not be considered a waiver or deprive the Company of the right thereafter to insist on strict adherence to that term or any other term of this Agreement. Neither this Agreement nor any part of it may be waived, changed or terminated orally, and any waiver, amendment or modification must be in writing signed by the Employee and the Company’s Chief Executive Officer.

6.    Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall, when executed, be deemed to be an original and all of which shall be deemed to be one and the same instrument.

7.  Choice of Law. This Agreement will be governed and construed and enforced in accordance with the laws of the State of Florida, without regard to its conflicts of law rules.

8.   Entire Agreement. This Agreement contains the entire understanding of the Parties relating to the subject matter of this Agreement and supersedes all other such prior written or oral agreements, understandings or arrangements relating to such subject matter. The Employee acknowledges that, in entering into this Agreement, the Employee does not rely and has not relied on any statements or representations not contained in this Agreement.

9.    Severability. Any term or provision of this Agreement that is determined to be invalid or unenforceable by any court of competent jurisdiction in any jurisdiction shall, as to such jurisdiction, be ineffective to the extent of such invalidity or unenforceability without rendering invalid or unenforceable the remaining terms and provisions of this Agreement or affecting the validity or enforceability of any of the terms or provisions of this Agreement in any other jurisdiction and such invalid or unenforceable provision shall be modified by such court so that it is enforceable to the extent permitted by applicable law.

10.        Headings.   The headings of any paragraphs in this Agreement are for reference only and shall not be used in construing the terms of this Agreement.

11.       Survival.    The covenants, agreements, representations and warranties contained in this Agreement shall survive the termination of the Employee’s employment with the Company at any time and for any reason.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, this Agreement has been executed and delivered by the Parties as of the first date written above.

The Company

By :)

Title:

Date:                     ,2012

   ACCEPTED AND AGREED BY EMPLOYEE

By:

 

Date:                        ,2012

 

جدول مسؤولية شركة التأمين عن الاضرار التي تلحق بالغير

جدول مسؤولية شركة التأمين عن الاضرار التي تلحق بالغير :

القسم الاول

نوع الضرر

طبيعة الضرر

حدود المسؤولية

الوفاة / الاصابات الجسمانية :

1. الوفاة

(17000) دينار عن الشخص الواحد تدفع للورثة الشرعيين .

2. العجز الكلي الدائم

(17000) دينار للشخص الواحد .

3. العجز الجزئي الدائم

(17000) دينار مضروبة بنسبة العجز – للشخص الواحد .

4. العجز المؤقت

100) دينار اسبوعيا لمدة اقصاها (39) اسبوع – للشخص الواحد .

الاضرار المعنوية

1. الوفاة

(3000) دينار عن الشخص الواحد تدفع للورثة الشرعيين حتى الدرجة الثانية .

2. العجز الكلي الدائم

(3000) دينار للشخص الواحد .

3. العجز الجزئي الدائم

(3000) دينار مضروبة بنسبة العجز – للشخص الواحد .

القسم الثاني

العلاج الطبي :

(7500) دينار كحد اقصى للشخص الواحد

الاضرار التي تلحق بممتلكات الغير وتشمل :
1. بدل الاضرار المادية
2. بدل فوات المنفعة .
3. بدل نقصان القيمة .

(75000) دينار كحد اقصى عن الحادث الواحد .

صورة

161683_100000166304377_777092005_n

161683_100000166304377_777092005_n

قانون العفو العام لسنة 2011

المادة (1)

يسمى هذا القانون ( قانون العفو العام لسنة 2011) ويعمل به من تاريخ نشره في الجريدة الرسمية .

المادة (2)

أ- باستثناء ما هو منصوص عليه في المادة (3) من هذا القانون تعفى اعفاء عاما جميع الجرائم الجنائية والجنحية والمخالفات والافعال الجرمية التي و قعت قبل 1/6/2011 بحيث تزول حالة الاجرام من اساسها وتسقط كل دعوى جزائية وعقوبة اصلية كانت او فرعية تتعلق بأي من تلك الجرائم بما في ذلك رسوم المحاكم الجزائية .
ب- تعفى القضايا المشمولة بأحكام هذا القانون من الغرامات والرسوم المفروضة بكاملها او تلك التي ستفرض في الجرائم الجنائية والجنحية والمخالفات او في اجراءات جزائية .

المادة (3)

لا يشمل الاعفاء المنصوص عليه في الفقرة (أ) من المادة (2) من هذا القانون الجرائم التالية سواء بالنسبة للفاعل الاصلي او الشريك أو المتدخل او المحرض كما لا يشمل الاعفاء الشروع التام في أي منها :-
أ- جرائم التجسس المنصوص عليها في المواد (14) و (15) و (16) من قانون حماية اسرار ووثائق الدولة رقم (50) لسنة 1971 .
ب- جرائم المخدرات والمؤثرات العقلية المنصوص عليها في المواد (8-11) و (21) من قانون المخدرات والمؤثرات العقلية رقم (11) لسنة 1988 وتعديلاته .
ج- الجرائم الواقعة على امن الدولة الخارجي والداخلي المنصوص عليها في المواد ( 107- 153 مكررة ) من قانون العقوبات رقم (16) لسنة 1960 وتعديلاته .
د- جرائم جمعيات الاشرار والجمعيات غير المشروعة المنصوص عليها في المواد ( 157- 163) من قانون العقوبات رقم (16) لسنة 1960 وتعديلاته .
هـ- الجرائم المخلة بواجبات الوظيفة المنصوص عليها في المواد ( 170 – 177 ) من قانون العقوبات رقم (16) لسنة 1960 وتعديلاته وفي المادتين (5) و (6) من قانون محاكمة الوزراء رقم ( 35) لسنة 1952 وجرائم اساءة الائتمان والسرقة والاختلاس المنصوص عليها في المواد (28 – 31 ) من قانون العقوبات العسكري رقم (58) لسنة 2006 .
و- جرائم تزوير البنكنوت والجرائم المتصلة بالمسكوكات المنصوص عليها في المواد (239 – 255 ) من قانون العقوبات رقم (16) لسنة 1960 وتعديلاته .
ز- جرائم التزوير ( الجنائي ) المنصوص عليها في المواد ( 262- 265 ) من قانون العقوبات رقم (16) لسنة 1960 وتعديلاته .
ح- جرائم الاعتداء على العرض وتشمل الاغتصاب وهتك العرض والخطف المنصوص عليها في المواد (292 – 302 ) من قانون العقوبات رقم (16) لسنة 1960 وتعديلاته .
ط- جرائم القتل المنصوص عليها في المادة ( 326) من قانون العقوبات رقم (16) لسنة 1960 وتعديلاته غير المقترنة باسقاط الحق الشخصي .
ي- جرائم القتل المنصوص عليها في المادتين (327) و ( 328 ) من قانون العقوبات رقم (16) لسنة 1960 وتعديلاته .
ك- جرائم الضرب المفضي الى الموت المنصوص عليها في المادة (330) من قانون العقوبات رقم (16) لسنة 1960 وتعديلاته غير المقترنة باسقاط الحق الشخصي .
ل- جرائم ايذاء الاشخاص المنصوص عليها في المادتين ( 334) مكررة و ( 335) من قانون العقوبات رقم (16) لسنة 1960 وتعديلاته غير المقترنة باسقاط الحق الشخصي .
م- جرائم المشاجرة المنصوص عليها في المادة (338) من قانون العقوبات رقم (16) لسنة 1960 وتعديلاته غير المقترنة باسقاط الحق الشخصي .
ن- جرائم السرقة ( الجنائية ) المنصوص عليها في المواد (400 – 405 ) من قانون العقوبات رقم (16) لسنة 1960 وتعديلاته غير المقترنة باسقاط الحق الشخصي .
س- جرائم الإحتيال وجرائم الشيك المنصوص عليها في المواد ( 417 – 421 ) من قانون العقوبات رقم (16) لسنة 1960 وتعديلاته غير المقترنة باسقاط الحق الشخصي .
ع- جرائم الافلاس الاحتيالي المنصوص عليها في الفقرة (1) من المادة (438) والمادة (439) من قانون العقوبات رقم (16) لسنة 1960 وتعديلاته وجرائم الغش اضراراً بالدائنين المنصوص عليها في المادتين (441) و (442) من قانون العقوبات رقم (16) لسنة 1960 وتعديلاته .
ف- جرائم التعامل بالرق المنصوص عليها في المادة (5) من قانون ابطال الرق لسنة 1929 وجرائم الاتجار بالبشر المنصوص عليها في المادة (3) من قانون منع الاتجار بالبشر رقم (9) لسنة 2009.
ص- جرائم غسل الاموال وتمويل الارهاب المنصوص عليها في المادتين (3) و ( 4) من قانون مكافحة غسل الاموال وتمويل الارهاب رقم (46) لسنة 2007 وتعديلاته وجرائم الارهاب المنصوص في المادة (3) من قانون منع الارهاب رقم (55) لسنة 2006 .
ق- الجرائم المنصوص عليها في الفقرتين (أ) و (ب) من المادة (11) من قانون الاسلحة النارية والذخائر رقم (34) لسنة 1952 وتعديلاته .
ر- الجرائم المنصوص عليها في المادة (12) من قانون المفرقعات رقم (13) لسنة 1953 وتعديلاته.
ش- الغرامات المترتبة على مخالفة أحكام قانون الجمارك وقانون الضريبة العامة على المبيعات وقانون ضريبة الدخل .

المادة (4)

ليس في هذا القانون ما يمنع من :-
أ- الحكم للمدعي الشخصي بالالزامات المدنية ولا من انفاذ الحكم الصادر بها .
ب- مصادرة البضائع أو اتلافها أو التصرف بها في غير الأغراض التجارية وفقا لاحكام القوانين ذات العلاقة .

المادة (5)

يخلى سبيل الموقوفين والمحكومين ممن تشملهم احكام هذا القانون بأمر يصدره النواب العامون الى الجهات المختصة ، اما في القضايا التي ما زالت قيد النظر سواء امام المحاكم او النيابة العامة او أي جهة اخرى فتصدر المحكمة او تلك الجهة حسب مقتضى الحال ، القرارات اللازمة بشأنها تطبيقاً لاحكام هذا القانون .

المادة (6)

تؤلف لجنة برئاسة رئيس محكمة التمييز ورئيس النيابات العامة والنائب العام لدى محكمة استئناف عمان والنائب العام لدى محكمة الجنايات الكبرى والنائب العام لدى محكمة أمن الدولة للنظر في كل اعتراض او اشكال او تفسير ينجم عن تطبيق احكام هذا القانون وتصدر اللجنة قراراتها بالاجماع او بالاكثرية .

المادة (7)

رئيس الوزراء والوزراء مكلفون بتنفيذ احكام هذا القانون .
13/9/2011

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